The Effect of Cigarette and Hookah Smoking on Lipid Profile Among Adult Males in Rafah Governorate, Palestine

Akram M. Altaher, Hosam A. Allhaj-Yousef, Sobhi N. Alattar, Ali A. Abd-Elnaby, Khalil Z. Almeshal


Smoking is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis & coronary heart disease (CHD). dyslipidemia has been shown to be a significant coronary heart disease risk factor.  This study is a case-control, conducted between June to November 2016, and aimed to find out the effect of cigarette smoking and hookah consumption on lipid profiles among the adult population.  A total of 200 adults out of them 50 subjects were a non-smoker (controls group) and the other 150 were smokers (cases group), aged between 20-55 years and collected from Rafah Governorate. Personal & demographic data and clinical data situation of the study population were taken by interview questionnaire. Biochemical evaluations were carried out. Collected data were analyzed using SPSS-18. The findings showed that there was a significant difference between the mean ± SD of lipid profile in the controls group and the mean ± SD of lipid profile in seven cases sup-group (P < 0.05). Further, there was a statistically significant relationship between the mean ± SD of lipid profiles levels and years of cigarettes smoking among cigarettes smokers group (p=0.000). In contrast, among hookah smokers group, a statistical significance relation between the mean ± SD of TC level and years of hookah smoking is reported (p=0.010). Cigarette and hookah smokers had appeared with high progressing towards the emergence atherosclerosis and coronary risk factors; because, mostly, they were having high serum TC, TGs, LDL-C, and low serum HDL-C levels as compared to nonsmokers, and these findings agree with most of the previous studies.


Cigarette smoking, Hookah smoking, Lipid profiles, Coronary heart disease; Gaza Strip.

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