Influence of different types of tobacco smoking on seminal fluid parameters and sex hormones among males from the Gaza Strip

Mohammed M Laqqan, Saddam S Al-Dakhakhni, Fatma M Abo Ward, Abdel Fattah N Abd Rabou


Background: Smoking is a global problem that negatively affects human health and fertility and the endocrine functions of the male reproductive system.

Objectives: The present study aims to investigate the influence of the different types of tobacco smoking (cigarette, hookah, and electronic) on semen parameters and sex hormones in males from the Gaza Strip.

Methods and Materials: A total of 206 samples were classified into 156 cases and 50 controls. The cases have been classified into three groups depending on the type of tobacco smoking (cigarette smoking "n=52", hookah "n=55", and electronic "n=49"). Semen samples were collected to investigate the semen parameters in smokers compared to non-smokers. Additionally, blood samples were also collected to assess the level of sex hormones (testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)).

Results: A significant increase in FSH and LH levels has been found in smokers compared to non-smokers (P < 0.001), while a significant decrease in testosterone level has been observed in smokers’ men compared to non-smokers (P < 0.001). Significant variations have been shown in the sperm concentration (P < 0.001) and the percentages of sperm total motility (P < 0.001), active progressive motility (P < 0.001), slow progressive motility (P = 0.004), and immotile spermatozoa (P < 0.001) among the different tobacco smoking groups. Furthermore, significant variations have been found in the levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH among the different tobacco smoking groups (P < 0.001). The results showed significant positive correlations between sperm concentration, total motility, active progressive motility, slow progressive motility, and testosterone level (P < 0.001) in smokers.

Conclusions: The different types of tobacco smoking have negative influences on semen parameters and the levels of testosterone, FSH, and LH of smokers in the Gaza Strip.



Cigarette; Hookah; Electronic smoking; Male fertility; Sexual hormones; Gaza Strip

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